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AuthorMöhring, Annedc.contributor.author
Date of accession2018-07-31T07:21:53Zdc.date.accessioned
Available in OPARU since2018-07-31T07:21:53Zdc.date.available
Year of creation2018dc.date.created
Date of first publication2018-07-31dc.date.issued
AbstractDomain-specific knowledge contributes to individual differences in many cognitive tasks. Research suggests that the underlying mechanisms might best be described with the knowledge-is-power hypothesis, claiming that prior knowledge facilitates the acquisition of new knowledge. However, investigations of this effect are often restricted to narrow low-stakes settings. This thesis aims to examine the knowledge-is-power hypothesis in more naturalistic and educational settings. First, the influence of domain-specific knowledge on comprehension of new information was tested with an innovative assessment capitalizing on the internet. In order to investigate individual differences in digital literacy, test-takers were presented with health-related comprehension problems. Instead of reading a given text, they were instructed to search the internet for the information required to answer the questions. The relationship between this newly developed test and fluid and crystallized intelligence was investigated, while controlling for computer usage. Prior knowledge strongly influenced digital literacy. Together with fluid intelligence digital literacy could be explained exhaustively while computer usage did not add to the variance explained. A crucial time for learning processes and knowledge acquisition is the transition from school to work. Despite the relevance of this transition period, studies about the prediction of educational performance in vocational schools are scarce. Knowledge acquisition in vocational education and training (VET) was be predicted by cognitive abilities such as knowledge and reasoning as well as the non-cognitive construct of typical intellectual engagement. Differences in domain-specific knowledge were predicted for different stages of VET (1st year, 2nd year and 3rd year) and in distinct vocational domains. Crystallized intelligence emerged as the strongest predictor for all vocational domains and at every stage of VET while reasoning showed moderate to weak effects and typical intellectual engagement did not add to the variance explained at all. Overall, the knowledge-is-power hypothesis is supported even in broader and more naturalistic settings but seems to depend on several conditions such as the distinction between typical behavior and maximal effort and the constraints on the testing situation.dc.description.abstract
Languageen_USdc.language.iso
PublisherUniversität Ulmdc.publisher
LicenseStandarddc.rights
Link to license texthttps://oparu.uni-ulm.de/xmlui/license_v3dc.rights.uri
KeywordKowledge-is-powerdc.subject
KeywordCrystallized intelligencedc.subject
KeywordFluid intelligencedc.subject
KeywordVocational education and trainingdc.subject
KeywordDigital literacydc.subject
KeywordDomain-specific knowledgedc.subject
Dewey Decimal GroupDDC 150 / Psychologydc.subject.ddc
LCSHIntellectdc.subject.lcsh
LCSHVocational educationdc.subject.lcsh
LCSHComputer literacydc.subject.lcsh
LCSHInternetdc.subject.lcsh
LCSHComprehensiondc.subject.lcsh
TitleWhy knowledge is relevant in real-world settings : innovative approaches to examine the knowledge-is-power hypothesisdc.title
Resource typeDissertationdc.type
Date of acceptance2018-06-22dcterms.dateAccepted
RefereeWilhelm, Oliverdc.contributor.referee
RefereeSchroeders, Ulrichdc.contributor.referee
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.18725/OPARU-8532dc.identifier.doi
PPN1028465459dc.identifier.ppn
URNhttp://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:289-oparu-8589-1dc.identifier.urn
GNDWissendc.subject.gnd
GNDIntelligenzdc.subject.gnd
GNDBerufsausbildungdc.subject.gnd
GNDBerufliche Fortbildungdc.subject.gnd
GNDMedienkompetenzdc.subject.gnd
FacultyFakultät für Ingenieurwissenschaften, Informatik und Psychologieuulm.affiliationGeneral
InstitutionInstitut für Psychologie und Pädagogikuulm.affiliationSpecific
Grantor of degreeFakultät für Ingenieurwissenschaften, Informatik und Psychologieuulm.thesisGrantor
DCMI TypeTextuulm.typeDCMI
CategoryPublikationenuulm.category
FundingNetzwerk Bildungsforschung: Kognitive Grundfähigkeit, deklaratives Wissen und leistungsrelevante Präferenzen als Determinanten des Ausbildungserfolgs / Baden-Württemberg Stiftung [1.15303.06]uulm.funding
FundingNetzwerk Bildungsforschung: Verstehensleistungen im Kontext von Wissenserwerbsprozessen / Baden-Württemberg Stiftung [1.15303.00]uulm.funding


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