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AuthorBaldwin, Heather Joandc.contributor.author
Date of accession2017-02-01T14:35:15Zdc.date.accessioned
Available in OPARU since2017-02-01T14:35:15Zdc.date.available
Year of creation2015dc.date.created
Date of first publication2017-02-01dc.date.issued
AbstractBats are implicated in the emergence of many zoonotic diseases, including the coronaviruses (CoVs) responsible for deadly outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002- 2003, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) which first emerged in 2012. Despite an increased interest in bat CoVs since the SARS epidemic, little research has examined bat CoVs from a disease ecology perspective. In this thesis, I investigated the epidemiology and ecology of CoVs and bats that host them in Ghana, West Africa. This thesis is presented in two parts. In the first part, I examined CoV epidemiology in bats in Ghana. I captured bats at several colonies regularly over two years. Samples were screened for CoVs, which were found to be widespread in insectivorous cave-dwelling bats of the genera Hipposideros and Nycteris. A novel CoV related to MERS-CoV was detected at high prevalence in slit-faced bats, Nycteris cf. gambiensis, supporting suggestions of a bat origin of MERS-CoV. I examined population and individual-level risk factors for infection with four CoVs in Nycteris cf. gambiensis, Hipposideros abae, and H. cf. ruber. I found a strong seasonal effect on CoV infection rates, and a strong association with age, whereby juvenile bats are at greater risk of infection, as well as evidence for higher risk with low body condition. These findings provide new insights into the ecological, demographic and temporal processes that influence CoV infection dynamics in bats, with implications for public health management to prevent virus spillover to humans and domestic animals. In the second part of my thesis, I examined cryptic speciation and genetic and acoustic diversity in CoV host species, Hipposideros caffer and H. ruber. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite loci, and acoustic and morphological data, I showed that mitochondrial DNA clades represent distinct species, with no evidence of interbreeding between groups. I then used mitochondrial sequence data to date lineage divergence, and explore the historical and evolutionary processes that may have given rise to diversity in these taxa. Further, I characterised spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity in the three species corresponding to H. cf. ruber (H. sp. B, C, and D). Comparison shows stark contrasts in the spatial patterns of genetic variation of these species, despite them having diverged relatively recently and apparently having highly similar ecological and natural history traits. I discuss the implications of these results for disease surveillance and spread, the use of surrogate species in wildlife management, and the evolutionary processes that generate and maintain diversity. The findings of this thesis add to knowledge of bat CoV ecology and epidemiology, as well as to the evolution and patterns of diversity within a relatively widespread, but understudied, group of Afrotropical bats that are natural CoV hosts. The results are discussed in the context of zoonoses, wildlife management and disease prevention, and the evolution of cryptic speciation in bats.dc.description.abstract
Languageen_USdc.language.iso
PublisherUniversität Ulmdc.publisher
Articles in publ.Baldwin H., Vallo P., Gardner M., Drosten C., Tschapka M. & Stow A. (2014) Isolation and characterization of 11 novel microsatellite loci in a West African leaf-nosed bat, Hipposideros aff. ruber. BMC Research Notes 7(1), 607-610.dc.relation.haspart
Articles in publ.Annan A., Baldwin H., Corman V., Klose S., Owusu M., Nkrumah E., Badu E., Anti P., Agbenyega O., Meyer B., Oppong S., Sarkodie Y., Kalko E., Lina P., Godlevska E., Reusken C. B. E. M., Seebens A., Gloza-Rauch F., Vallo P., Tschapka M., Drosten C. & Drexler J. F. (2013) Human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related viruses in bats, Ghana and Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19(3), 456-459.dc.relation.haspart
Articles in publ.Corman V. M., Baldwin H. J., Tateno A. F., Zerbinati R. M., Annan A., Owusu M., Nkrumah E. E., Maganga G. D., Oppong S. & Adu-Sarkodie Y. (2015) Evidence for an ancestral association of human coronavirus 229E with bats. Journal of Virology 89(23), 11858-118570.dc.relation.haspart
Articles in publ.Herberstein M. E., Baldwin H. J. & Gaskett A. C. (2013) Deception down under: is Australia a hot spot for deception? Behavioral Ecology 25(1), 12-16.dc.relation.haspart
LicenseStandard (ohne Print-on-Demand)dc.rights
Link to license texthttps://oparu.uni-ulm.de/xmlui/license_opod_v1dc.rights.uri
KeywordHipposideros ruberdc.subject
KeywordHipposideros cafferdc.subject
KeywordDemographic historydc.subject
KeywordGenetic connectivitydc.subject
KeywordComparative phylogeographydc.subject
Dewey Decimal GroupDDC 570 / Life sciencesdc.subject.ddc
LCSHBats; Africadc.subject.lcsh
LCSHHipposideridaedc.subject.lcsh
LCSHMicrosatellites (Genetics)dc.subject.lcsh
LCSHPopulation geneticsdc.subject.lcsh
LCSHPhylogeography; Methodsdc.subject.lcsh
LCSHGene flowdc.subject.lcsh
MeSHZoonosesdc.subject.mesh
MeSHCoronavirus; Epidemiologydc.subject.mesh
TitleEpidemiology and ecology of virus and host: bats and coronaviruses in Ghana, West Africadc.title
Resource typeDissertationdc.type
Date of acceptance2016-02-22dcterms.dateAccepted
RefereeTschapka, Marcodc.contributor.referee
RefereeSommer, Simonedc.contributor.referee
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.18725/OPARU-4216dc.identifier.doi
PPN87989248Xdc.identifier.ppn
URNhttp://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:289-oparu-4255-0dc.identifier.urn
GNDCoronavirendc.subject.gnd
GNDFledermäusedc.subject.gnd
FacultyFakultät für Naturwissenschaftenuulm.affiliationGeneral
InstitutionInstitut für Evolutionsökologie und Naturschutzgenomikuulm.affiliationSpecific
Peer reviewneinuulm.peerReview
Shelfmark print versionW: W-H 14.982uulm.shelfmark
Grantor of degreeFakultät für Naturwissenschaftenuulm.thesisGrantor
DCMI TypeTextuulm.typeDCMI
TypeErstveröffentlichunguulm.veroeffentlichung
CategoryPublikationenuulm.category
In cooperation withMacquarie University, Sydney, Australiauulm.cooperation
University Bibliographyjauulm.unibibliographie


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