Evidence of necroptosis in osteoarthritic disease: investigation of blunt mechanical impact as possible trigger in regulated necrosis
Brenner, Rolf E.
InstitutionsUKU. Klinik für Orthopädie
Cell Death and Disease ; 10 (2019). - Art.-Nr. 683. - eISSN 2041-4889
Link to original publicationhttps://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-1930-5
LicenseCC BY 4.0 International
Joint injuries are highly associated with cell death and development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). The present study focused on necroptosis as a possible modality of chondrocyte death after cartilage trauma and its relevance in OA disease in general. For this purpose, apoptosis- and necroptosis-associated markers were determined in highly degenerated (ICRS ≥ 3) as well as macroscopically intact cartilage tissue (ICRS ≤ 1) by means of real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Moreover, influence of blunt trauma and/or stimulation with cycloheximide (CHX), TNF-a, and caspase-inhibitor zVAD were investigated in cartilage explants (ICRS ≤ 1). Further characterization of necroptosis was performed in isolated chondrocytes. We found that gene expression levels of RIPK3 (4.2-fold, P < 0.0001) and MLKL (2.7-fold, P < 0.0001) were elevated in highly degenerated cartilage tissue, which was confirmed by IHC staining. After ex vivo trauma and/or CHX/TNF stimulation, addition of zVAD further enhanced expression of necroptosis-related markers as well as release of PGE2 and nitric oxide, which was in line with increased cell death and subsequent release of intracellular HMGB1 and dsDNA in CHX/TNF stimulated chondrocytes. However, trauma and/or chemically induced cell death and subsequent release of pro-inflammatory mediators could be largely attenuated by RIPK1-inhibitor necrostatin 1 or antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Overall, the study provided clear evidence of necroptotic cell death in OA disease. Moreover, a possible link between cartilage injury and necroptotic processes was found, depending on oxidative stress and cytokine release. These results contribute to further understanding of cell death in PTOA and development of novel therapeutic approaches.
Is supplemented byhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-019-1930-5#Sec22
Subject HeadingsTrauma [GND]