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AuthorGrippenkoven, Jandc.contributor.author
Date of accession2020-01-13T16:03:10Zdc.date.accessioned
Available in OPARU since2020-01-13T16:03:10Zdc.date.available
Year of creation2019dc.date.created
Date of first publication2020-01-13dc.date.issued
AbstractRailway level crossings are particularly accident-prone areas within the railway transport which generally is rather safe. Road users with their errors are responsible for most of the accidents that occur at level crossing. However, reliable findings on the psychological background of these human errors are scarce. Moreover, there are hardly measures that in-crease the safety at level crossings, by systematically reflecting the experiences and the be-havior of road users. Starting from this state-of-the-art of science and technology, the knowledge and information processing of road users with regard to the passage of a level crossing were examined first. In study 1, a survey was conducted. It was found that the majority of respondents had a limited understanding of traffic signs related to level crossings, especially the St. Andrew's Cross. In study 2, the behaviour of motorists in the process of approaching a passive level crossing without a barrier or a light signal was evaluated using eye tracking during a regular ride. It became apparent that a majority of motorists did not engage in a careful visual inspection of the peripheral areas at the level crossing to determine whether a train is approaching or not. Deficient knowledge of the importance of the St. Andrew's Cross as well as the omission of a visual check of the level crossing peripheries pose risks for the safe passage of passive level crossings. Based on these findings, two safety measures to counteract the lack of knowledge and the inattention of road users were derived and tested. In study 3 it was examined whether it is easier to retrieve mental scripts related to other traffic signs compared to the St. Andrew's Cross. In a choice reaction time experiment it turned out that it was indeed easier for participants to assign the right meaning to the stop sign than to the St. Andrew's Cross as an example. At passive level crossings in Germany the stop sign could be a useful addition to the St. Andrew's Cross to counteract the lack of understanding of many road users. In study 4, the invention PeriLight was tested in the context of a passive level crossing with the help of eye tracking in a driving experiment in regular traffic. The invention consists of two lighting units that are placed in the peripheral areas to the left and right of the level crossing and emit stroboscopic light stimuli whenever a motorist is approaching. PeriLight significantly increased the proportion of participants who visually inspected the level crossing during the approach, compared to a baseline condition.dc.description.abstract
AbstractRailway level crossings are particularly accident-prone areas within the railway transport which generally is rather safe. Road users with their errors are responsible for most of the accidents that occur at level crossing. However, reliable findings on the psychological background of these human errors are scarce. Moreover, there are hardly measures that increase the safety at level crossings, by systematically reflecting the experiences and the behavior of road users. Starting from this state-of-the-art of science and technology, the knowledge and information processing of road users with regard to the passage of a level crossing were examined first. In study 1, a survey was conducted. It was found that the majority of respondents had a limited understanding of traffic signs related to level crossings, especially the St. Andrew's Cross. In study 2, the behavior of motorists in the process of approaching a passive level crossing without a barrier or a light signal was evaluated using eye tracking during a regular ride. It became apparent that a majority of motorists did not engage in a careful visual inspection of the peripheral areas at the level crossing to determine whether a train is approaching or not. Deficient knowledge of the importance of the St. Andrew's Cross as well as the omission of a visual check of the level crossing peripheries pose risks for the safe passage of passive level crossings. Based on these findings, two safety measures to counteract the lack of knowledge and the inattention of road users were derived and tested. In study 3 it was examined whether it is easier to retrieve mental scripts related to other traffic signs compared to the St. Andrew's Cross. In a choice reaction time experiment it turned out that it was indeed easier for participants to assign the right meaning to the stop sign than to the St. Andrew's Cross as an example. At passive level crossings in Germany the stop sign could be a useful addition to the St. Andrew's Cross to counteract the lack of understanding of many road users. In study 4, the invention PeriLight was tested in the context of a passive level crossing with the help of eye tracking in a driving experiment in regular traffic. The invention consists of two lighting units that are placed in the peripheral areas to the left and right of the level crossing and emit stroboscopic light stimuli whenever a motorist is approaching. PeriLight significantly increased the proportion of participants who visually inspected the level crossing during the approach, compared to a baseline condition.dc.description.abstract
Languagededc.language.iso
PublisherUniversität Ulmdc.publisher
LicenseStandarddc.rights
Link to license texthttps://oparu.uni-ulm.de/xmlui/license_v3dc.rights.uri
KeywordHuman Factorsdc.subject
KeywordBahnübergangssicherheitdc.subject
KeywordBlickbewegungsmessungdc.subject
Dewey Decimal GroupDDC 150 / Psychologydc.subject.ddc
LCSHTraffic safety; Human factorsdc.subject.lcsh
LCSHRailroad crossings; Safety appliancesdc.subject.lcsh
LCSHDistracted drivingdc.subject.lcsh
LCSHAccidents; Preventiondc.subject.lcsh
LCSHEye tracking; Meassurementdc.subject.lcsh
LCSHTraffic signs and signals; Psychological aspectsdc.subject.lcsh
TitleHuman Factors – Maßnahmen zur Erhöhung der Sicherheit im Verhalten von Straßenverkehrsteilnehmern an Bahnübergängendc.title
Resource typeDissertationdc.type
Date of acceptance2019-10-25dcterms.dateAccepted
RefereeBaumann, Martindc.contributor.referee
RefereeJipp, Meikedc.contributor.referee
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.18725/OPARU-23842dc.identifier.doi
PPN1687247870dc.identifier.ppn
URNhttp://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:289-oparu-23905-9dc.identifier.urn
GNDAufmerksamkeitdc.subject.gnd
GNDVerkehrssicherheitdc.subject.gnd
GNDBahnübergangdc.subject.gnd
GNDVerkehrspsychologiedc.subject.gnd
GNDAugenfolgebewegungdc.subject.gnd
GNDFaktor Menschdc.subject.gnd
FacultyFakultät für Ingenieurwissenschaften, Informatik und Psychologieuulm.affiliationGeneral
InstitutionInstitut für Psychologie und Pädagogikuulm.affiliationSpecific
Grantor of degreeFakultät für Ingenieurwissenschaften, Informatik und Psychologieuulm.thesisGrantor
DCMI TypeTextuulm.typeDCMI
CategoryPublikationenuulm.category
In cooperation withDeutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.uulm.cooperation
University Bibliographyjauulm.unibibliographie


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