Einfluss eines Ausdauerlauftrainings auf exekutive Funktionen und deren hirnelektrische Korrelate unter Berücksichtigung eines genetischen Polymorphismus
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Exercise is a simple means that facilitates cognitive functions by activating molecular and cellular signaling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. However underlying mechanisms of its effects remain widely unresolved. Aim of the present study was to investigate via different methodological approaches whether an increase in aerobic fitness would foster cognitive functioning and affect. Moreover, genotype of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism as an index of relative central dopamine bioavailability was assessed to elucidate dopaminergic tuning of performance. 75 participants underwent an incremental fitness test and engaged in a 17 weeks running training consisting of 3 weekly session at individually adjusted intensities. As a result, training positively influenced executive functioning and especially val-carriers benefitted from increase in fitness. Positively valenced aspects of well-being showed to be enhanced, whereas negative affect was independent of genotype. Furthermore, behavioral and electrophysiological indices of task preparation and response inhibition as part of executive functions were assessed in a modified version of an Eriksen flanker task in a subsample of the study population. Results indicate that higher-fit individuals show greater CNV amplitudes, reflecting enhanced task preparation processes, as well as decreased amplitudes in N2, indexing more efficient executive control processes and P3 amplitudes associated with the allocation of attentional and memory control enlarged amplitudes associated with a better task performance (greater number of correct responses in the Go-trials). The current findings suggest that physical fitness serves as a mighty means to promote cognitive functioning and well-being. It enhances cognitive processing by increasing attentional allocation to stimulus encoding during task preparation and may unfold its benefit modulated by dopaminergic activity.
Subject HeadingsGehirn [GND]
Körperliche Aktivität [GND]
Polymorphism, genetic [MeSH]