Efficient verification of quantum resources
FacultiesFakultät für Naturwissenschaften
LicenseStandard (Fassung vom 01.10.2008)
In this thesis we present methods to efficiently verify quantum many-body experiments. The first part focuses on the quantitative verification of graph state experiments from simple measurements. In particular, optimal bounds on the fidelity, purity and entropy from stabilizer measurements are derived as well as high-quality bounds on entanglement measures. Furthermore, we show how entanglement may be quantified in spin and cold atom many-body systems using standard experimental techniques only. The scheme requires no assumptions on the state in the laboratory, and a lower bound to the entanglement can be read off directly from the scattering cross section of neutrons deflected from solid state samples or the time-of-flight distribution of cold atoms in optical lattices, respectively. Quantum mechanics offers many interesting properties such as entanglement and non-locality. However, one can easily think of more general correlations than quantum correlations. This gives rise to the question if quantum correlations are the most general allowed in nature? In the last part we propose a new axiom we call macroscopic locality. The idea behind this axiom is that any physical theory should recover classical physics in the continuum limit (i.e., when a large number of particles is involved and our measurement devices fail to resolve discrete particles). We will show that this very intuitive axiom, together with the no-signaling principle, allows to recover many important results in quantum mechanics, like the universality of the Tsirelson bound, or the set of accessible two-point correlators. Moreover, we will provide a complete characterization of the correlations between two distant physical systems that arise out of both axioms and comment on its consistency.
Subject HeadingsQuanteninformatik [GND]
Quantum theory [LCSH]